In Linux, as in most other Unix-like operating systems, it is common to use a whole partition of a hard disk for swapping (paging). However, with the 2.6 and later Linux kernel, swap files are just as fast as swap partitions, although Red Hat recommends using a swap partition. The administrative flexibility of swap files outweighs that of partitions; since modern high capacity hard drives can remap physical sectors, no partition is guaranteed to be contiguous. You can add swap file as a dedicated partition or use following instructions to create a swap file.
Procedure to add a swap file. Steps to add swap file
You need to use dd command to create swap-file. Next you need to use mkswap command to set up a Linux swap area on a device or in a file.
a) Login as the root user
b) Type following command to create 512MB swap file (1024 * 512MB = 524288 block size):
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile1 bs=1024 count=524288
c) Set up a Linux swap area:
# mkswap /swapfile1
d) Activate /swapfile1 swap space immediately:
# swapon /swapfile1
e) To activate /swapfile1 after Linux system reboot, add entry to /etc/fstab file. Open this file using text editor such as vi:
# vi /etc/fstab
Append following line:
/swapfile1 swap swap defaults 0 0
So next time Linux comes up after reboot, it enables the new swap file for you automatically.
g) How do I verify swap is activated or not?
Simply use free command:
$ free -m
This is very useful when you want to add more memory to your system.