How to search file(s) in linux / unix?

find is very famous and regularly used command to find files in the Linux/UNIX filesystem based on various different conditions. Let us review some practical examples of find command. All system administrators love this command, sometimes a life saver..

find [pathnames] [conditions]

How to find files containing a particular / specific word in its name?
The following command looks for all the files under /etc directory with cron
in the filename.

# find /etc -name "*cron*"

How to find all the files greater than certain size?
The following command will list all the files in the system greater than

# find / -type f -size +10M

How to find files that are not modified in the last x number of days?
The following command will list all the files that were modified more than 30
days ago under the current directory.

# find . -mtime +30

How to find files that are modified in the last x number of days?
The following command will list all the files that were modified in the last
five days under the current directory.

# find . –mtime -5

How to delete all the archive files with extension *.tar.gz and greater than 50MB?
Please be careful while executing the following command as you don’t want
to delete the files by mistake. The best practice is to execute the same
command with ls –l to make sure you know which files will get deleted when
you execute the command with rm.

# find / -type f -name *.tar.gz -size +50M -exec ls -l {} \;
# find / -type f -name *.tar.gz -size +50M -exec rm -f {} \;

How to archive all the files that are not modified in the last x
number of days?

The following command finds all the files not modified in the last 30 days
under /home/nilesh directory and creates an archive files under /tmp in the
format of ddmmyyyy_archive.tar.

# find /home/nilesh -type f -mtime +30 | xargs tar -cvf
/tmp/`date '+%d%m%Y'_archive.tar`

On a side note, you can perform lot of file related activities (including finding
files) us

How to change MySQL root password? mySQL-server

How do I change MySQL root password under Linux, Debian, centos, fedora, suse, mandrake, linux-mint, Ubuntu, FreeBSD, OpenBSD and UNIX like operating system over ssh / telnet session?
Setting up mysql password is one of the essential tasks. By default root user is MySQL admin account. Please note that the Linux / UNIX login root account for your operating system and MySQL root are different. They are separate and nothing to do with each other (indeed some admin removes root account and setup admin as mysql super user).

mysqladmin command to change root password

If you have never set a root password for MySQL, the server does not require a password at all for connecting as root. To setup root password for first time, use mysqladmin command at shell prompt as follows:

$ mysqladmin -u root password NEWPASSWORD

However, if you want to change (or update) a root password, then you need to use following command

$ mysqladmin -u root -p’oldpassword’ password newpass

For example, If old password is abc, and set new password to 123456, enter:

$ mysqladmin -u root -p’abc’ password ’123456′

Change MySQL password for other user
To change a normal user password you need to type (let us assume you would like to change password for nilesh):

$ mysqladmin -u nilesh -p oldpassword password newpass

Changing MySQL root user password using MySQL sql command
This is another method. MySQL stores username and passwords in user table inside MySQL database. You can directly update password using the following method to update or change password for user nilesh:

1) Login to mysql server, type following command at shell prompt:

$ mysql -u root -p

2) Use mysql database (type command at mysql> prompt):

mysql> use mysql;

3) Change password for user nilesh:

mysql> update user set password=PASSWORD("NEWPASSWORD") where User='nilesh';

4) Reload privileges:

mysql> flush privileges;
mysql> quit

This method you need to use while using PHP or Perl scripting.

How to connect to MySQL Server From Shell Prompt? (CLI – Command Line Interface)

How do I access (connect to) MySQL server from the shell prompt (command line)?

MySQL software includes mysql client. It is a text-based client for mysqld, a SQL-based relational database server. It works interactive and non-interactive mode.

mysql Client Syntax:

mysql -u {mysql-user} -p {mysql-password} -h {mysql-server}


  • -u {mysql-user} : Specify MySQL user name. Use root only when connecting to local system.
  • -p {mysql-password}: Specify password, Employ the specified password when connecting to the database server. If a password is not supplied, it will be requested interactively.
  • -h {mysql-server}: Connect to the specified host (remote or local)

For example remote connect to MySQL server called and user vivek:

$ mysql -u nilesh -h mysql101 -p

Sample outputs:

Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 5 to server version: 4.1.15-Debian_1-log

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.


You can type an sql statement at mysql> prompt. In this example, you will list tables from the demo database, run;

USE demo;

Sample Session:

mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 31855130
Server version: 5.0.77 Source distribution

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql> use linux;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed
mysql> show tables;
| Tables_in_linux |
| linux1          |
| linux1_meta     |
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> \q

After typing an SQL statement, end it with ” ; ” (semicolon) and press [Enter] key.

To exit type quit or \q:




Sample session:

mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 31853999
Server version: 5.0.77 Source distribution

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql> quit

Batch Mode:

You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) as follows:

mysql database_name < input.script.sql > output.file
mysql -u user -p'password' database_name < input.script.sql > output.file

Recommended Reading:

Type the following command to mysql command man page:

man mysql

what is connection string in MySQL?
How to connect to mysql-server using username and password?
free opensoure RDBMS MySQL?
how to get help on mysql database administration?
connect to mysql-server using mysql-client remotely?

How to find File-Directory creation date ?

$stat <file name> command basically displays file or file-system status. stat command is used to find Access , Modify, Change date and time for any file or directory in Unix like operating systems. e.g

$stat /root/install.log
File: `/root/install.log'
Size: 17154           Blocks: 48         IO Block: 4096   regular file
Device: fd00h/64768d    Inode: 1177346     Links: 1
Access: (0644/-rw-r--r--)  Uid: (    0/    root)   Gid: (    0/    root)
Access: 2011-09-30 16:24:39.000000000 +0100
Modify: 2011-09-30 16:28:59.000000000 +0100
Change: 2011-09-30 16:29:04.000000000 +0100

As show in above example, It also displays owner and group associated with particular file. permissions on particular file. etc
There is no creation date available as far as I know unless you log the file creation date in a script. You can use the stat command as mentioned above to get the time stamp for last access, last change and last modification time.

$stat --version
stat (GNU coreutils) 5.97
Copyright (C) 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software.  You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of
the GNU General Public License <>.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

Written by Michael Meskes.

In linux, centos, fedora, redhat, suse, ubuntu, mint, debian, mandrake, caldera, yolinux, gnulinux

How to find directory last change / modification date and time?
How to find file / filesystem last change / modification date and time?
How to find last “access” date and time for file / directory?

As we are talking about time stamp (access, change, modify) for files / directories in linux, we much consider talking about “touch” command.
“touch” [options] <file name(s)>  :
Mainly touch command is used to change time stamp for files. If file does not exist then touch command creates file with current time stamp. e.g

$touch file1 file2 file3

will create 3 files in your present working directory with current time stamp.
Several of touch’s options are specifically designed to allow the user to change the timestamps for files. For example, the -a option changes only the access time, while the -m option changes only the modification time. The use of both of these options together changes both the access and modification times to the current time, for example:

$touch -am file11

The -r (i.e., reference) option followed directly by a space and then by a file name tells touch to use that file’s time stamps instead of current time. For example, the following would tell it to use the times of file4 for file5:

$touch -r myfile yourfile

The -B option modifies the timestamps by going back the specified number of seconds, and the -F option modifies the time by going forward the specified number of seconds. For example, the following command would make file7 30 seconds older than file6.

$touch -r myfile -B 30 yourfile

Importance of touch command.
Ah, beware before you use touch command on production system.
How to change times tamp using touch command?